Himu or Himalay (Bengali: হিমু or হিমালয়) is a popular fictional character created by the Bangladeshi writer Humayun Ahmed who appears ISBN Himu Ebong Ekti Russian Pori (Himu and a Russian fairy). Gyanakosha. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. Book: Ebong Himu Writer: Humayun Ahmed Category of the book: Novel Publisher of the book: Somoy Prokashon Publication Date:Feb.
Ebong Himu by Humayun Ahmed is the fifth book of Himu series. Maybe you will not gonna love this book but you still have to read the book because you love Himu. About twenty-three years ago, in Somoy Prokashon published this Bengali novel book. Himu has searched for a few days like cow searching.
No, it is not for searching any cow. The focal point of the problem is Badal. Eating is closed for a few days.
Even unable to gulp. Many doctors have checked but could not do anything.
Ebong Himu By Humayun Ahmed
But Badal believes that none but Himu can do this work. One night he appears in the house of aunt Majeda being stimulated appetite.
Himu becomes favorite to his uncle and aunt. Her exam is knocking at the door, so she is to stay here mainly for study. Era never accepts Himu ebonh. It seems to her that such pretending is to cheat person.
Ebong Himu is one of my favorite book from Himu series, and I love this book. I read this book more than once.
I still read this book, in my free time. Especially the ends conversation between Era and Himu thrills me much. And the character Rupa is like herself in every story likable but for avoiding her.
I felt quite disappointed reading this one after Parapar, which was far evong than this one. I loved this one too. Happy reading, thank you. Login to your account Remember Me Register a new account Lost your password?
Ebong Himu :এবং হিমু: Boi-Mela
Humayun Ahmed Himu Novels. Shared 5 Facebook Twitter. Leave a comment Cancel reply.
Sep 25, Antropologia kulturowa, cz. 2 – Janusz Gajda (PDF) from merlin. pl · Antropologia kulturowa Globalne siły, lokalne światy – Jack David Eller. Antropologia kulturowa Globalne siły, lokalne światy (miękka). Antropologia kulturowa Globalne siły, lokalne światy – Jack David Eller. Agata Szkiela · Books. Antropologia kulturowa, cz. 2 – Janusz Gajda (PDF) Ebook Pdf Antropologia kulturowa Globalne siły, lokalne światy – Jack David Eller. More information.
New York, JuneSydney, 29 Kulturpwa Reproduced here by special permission of the copyright owner Paul Knobel E-mail: Author, Title Sequence with Commentary on languages. This bibliography, which comes to 4, records in 39 non English languages, derives from Worldcat and comes to 97, words. Worldcat, emanating from the United States, is the largest union catalog of libraries in the world and covers the world, with national libraries, university and research libraries increasingly joining.
The bibliography was made 15—22 June when searches for the subject term “homosexuality” by individual languages were done using the Limit to: Language box eg “homosexuality” plus “Afrikaans”, “homosexuality” plus “Arabic”. The bibliography supplements the annotated bibliographies of homosexuality of Wayne R. These two works together constitute coverage of the subject to and contain 4, and 6, items respectively. However, there has been an accelerated volume of published works on homosexuality since and probably half the works in A bibliography of homosexuality: Though the items are unannotated, records can be searched on Worldcat where the complete library record with subject terms and other details for example pagination and whether there are illustrations gives more information.
I also contributed many items to Gary Simes’s bibliography. English language entries in Worldcat with subject “homosexuality” numbered 19, works in Junethat is at present nearly five times those in non English languages. Overall Worldcat had 25, entries relating to subject “homosexuality” in June The work has been published to make the non English sources available, especially to English speakers, but also to readers of other languages who it was felt would benefit from them eg readers of Korean may want to know of developments in research into homosexuality in Chinese and Japanese while correspondingly readers of French may want to know of developments in Spanish, Italian and Greek or even Russian and say, Chinese.
Library catalogs increasingly have non roman scripts so records are usually both in these scripts as well as roman script. Works cataloged in Worldcat cover the following formats: The records are listed alphabetically by language.
Within languages, periodicals appear first, then works without authors and then works with authors listed alphabetically by author. Some works have more than 2 records; these works have been left since frequently duplicates in the brief form given here give additional information on a work. The following 39 languages were found to have records with the subject term “homosexuality” totals of records found are listed after each language: The 10 most frequent languages for works relating to homosexuality apart from English with, as already noted, 19, records in Worldcat in June were GermanFrenchSpanishChineseDutchPortugueseJapaneseItalianSwedish and Hebrew with 80 records.
As can be seen the records are not exhaustive for each language Ancient Greek has much more than 1 work on homosexuality and Latin many more than 2. Using “homosexuality” as a keyword will almost invariably bring up more records than using it as a subject term.
But works given the subject term “homosexuality” by library catalogers can be regarded as of scholarly importance and even the fact that they have entries in Worldcat shows importance. The number of records found may also relate to whether libraries have put records on Worldcat and the state of cataloging in libraries eg, as already noted, whether “homosexuality” is given as subject term when it should; however in my experience subject term cataloging for homosexuality is usually very reliable: As already noted several formats are included in Worldcat records.
Gay periodicals are increasingly being cataloged though holdings may be few sometimes only1 library. Books on television are starting to appear though individual programs are still rare; radio, one of the most important means of communicating homosexuality ever, is barely present the great encyclopedia of Keith Howes, Broadcasting It on English television and radio in the UK, US and Australia is still a landmark work.
In languages with a few hundred works there will usually be coverage of gay history, literature, literary criticism, art and music, as well as types of homosexuality including increasingly books for young adultssocial aspects, law and some coverage of science. Articles have been found to be especially helpful; they include book reviews and can be expected to grow considerably in numbers in coming years.
Generally the periodicals listed can be accepted as the more important ones in a language for a complete list of periodicals see the Canadian Lesbian and Gay Archives list, the largest in the world at over 7, titles and now available on the internet.
297 Infos zu David Eller
Overall trends include gay histories of particular nationalities which frequently, but not always equate to particular languages as well as an increasing number of histories of cities eg Hamburg, Basel and Stockholm.
There is also increasing scientific discussion of homosexuality, including from the point of view of evolution and of the conceptualization of homosexuality. Some languages, usually those spoken in countries in which male homosexuality was once illegal eg Spain and Germany have extensive works on law English also has many works eg the barrister Montgomery Hyde’s The other love: Generally research on homosexuality has occurred in countries which are democracies; it is notable that, after the fall of Communism in eastern Europe, ina flood of gay works has appeared in Russian and is beginning in other east European languages eg Czech.
It is also notable that in China where male homosexuality is not illegal some words are listed; this total can be expected to grow considerably in coming years since China is experiencing an increasingly open gay movement. Readings from Literature and History It must be emphasized that only works in non English languages are included here, so, for instance, English language histories of a particular nationality do not appear eg Bret Hinsch’s Passions of the Cut Sleevewhich is a history of homosexuality in China.
Many works cited are of course rare works in English speaking countries like the United States, Great Britain, and Canada and sometimes are not held at all in libraries in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand and many other countries.
Library resources all over the world need to be built up. A couple of what appear to be incorrect catalog records works appearing for instance in a language group which appear to be not from that language have been noticed; these have been left since removal of such a record could be based on a false assumption.
Some notes on the languages and works from perusal of the records. Afrikanns, the language of people descended from the Dutch in South Africa is close to Dutch and Dutch should also be perused for works relating to South Africa. Arabic shows a growing corpus of works internet sites proliferate, usually created by the Arabic speaking diaspora and emanating from the United States, though none is archived here.
Catalan is spoken in the province of Catalunya in northeastern Spain, whose capital is Barcelona. Just as Catalan works may be relevant for Spain so Spanish works may also be relevant for Catalan. Chinese has a growing body of work with several gay histories, eg by Zhang Zhaizhou a librarian at the National Library in Beijing whose real name is Zhang Jieand the noted sexologist and author of over 30 books, Liu Dalin.
The earliest modern history dates from and was compiled in Hong Kong and published under the noses of the homophobic British by Weixingshiguanzhaizhu Committee of Scholarsthe identity of whom is now known to be Liang Xiao Zhong information from Zhang Jie. Homosexuality is not illegal in China. To date much material emanates from Hong Kong including, so far, the only generally circulating gay periodicals.
The Library of Congress, Washington. In Danish the work of Wilhelm Rosen, 2 very large volumes of essays covering the period to deserves mention.
Dutch has a very solid body of work dating from a gay library catalog see under Catalogus in the Dutch section. There are several histories, much discussion of literary works and several biographical works.
The work of Gert Hekma is outstanding. No country has taken homosexuality more seriously than France, where male homosexual sex has been legal since There have been many recent historical works, dictionaries of famous gays as in Germanworks on film also prominent in Italian and discussion of the conceptualization of homosexuality.
In fact no philosopher since Plato has been more influential in gay affairs than Foucault. A recent history of gay France from by Scott Gunther does not appear as it is in English. Claude Courouve has compiled a notable dictionary of French gay words as well as important basic bibliographies. In Finnish, where there is a very open gay movement as is the case in Iceland, which has the world’s first openly gay prime minister, a lesbian ; H Kalha’s book on the major gay artist Magnus Enckell is notable.
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German has the largest number of works. There are fine bibliographies by Manfred Herzer of non literary works and a less professional one by E G Welter on homosexuality overall Magnus Hirschfeld, a gay doctor and activist who wrote what is still a landmark work, the page volume translated into English only in as The Homosexuality of Men and Wom en, is one of the foremost scholars; this work has the first extensive list of male homosexuals, mainly Europeans, though a work by Albert Moll whose German title means famous homosexuals had a prior shorter list.
There have recently been a spate of works on the Nazi period and one biography by Luther Mochtar plausibly alleging the Nazi leader and German dictator, Adolf Hitler, was homosexual; this work does not appear in the works cited. The Symposiuma discussion of love, is a foundation work in homosexuality. Antropologix Greek has an increasing volume of works, including several gay poetry anthologies, a much reprinted gay dictionary compiled by Elias Petropoulos and two works on the Byzantine period.
The two works in Hindi are sure to be a precursor of many more now male homosexuality has been legalized. Indonesian has a growing list of works, especially with the recent flowering of democracy following the downfall of the dictator Suharto; the academic Dede Oetomo from Surabaya in east Java has written much and appears on television.
Italian shows the strong davidd of gay liberation especially in works inspired by the left. Pier Paolo Pasolinin was a major gay cultural figure making many fine gay films before being tragically murdered by a male prostitute.
Recent trends, as elsewhere, show a widening of discussion into all areas of gay life history, literature, film, politics, religion. Giovanni dall’Orto’s web site not listed gives one of the best coverages; he also compiled the only Italian gay bibliography Leggere omosessuale which is listed as well as being a founder of Babilonialong Italy’s premier gay magazine but now defunct the monthly Pride not listsed continues in the Babilonia davdi.
Bibliography of Homosexuality – The Non-English Sources
Japanese has a long gay scholarly tradition from the early years of the twentieth century when J Iwata was active he died in the Second World War ; in H Shibayama published a major study of Edo homosexuality while M Hayakawa’s book Ukiyoe shunga to nanshoku reproduces all homosexual shunga erotic color woodblock prints ; this latter work is available free on the internet through the Nichibunken, Japan’s premier research institute, situated in the hills outside Kyoto.
Latin’s two entries do not do justice to over 2, years of works see the overview for Latin in my Encyclopedia of Male Homosexual Poetry for works; Latin homosexual poems were still being written in the early twentieth century eg by Aleister Crowley.
Commentaries in Latin on ancient Greek and Latin gay writers, which appreared from the Renaissance and continued to the nineteenth century, await detailed exploration from a gay point of view. Norwegian has a very respectable body of gay writing with several historical works as does Swedish.
A major Swedish history of a city is the history of gay Stockholm from to compiled by the late Frederik Silverstolpe and others. The fine periodical Lambda Nordica covers the Scandinavian countries. Despite its huge gay poetry heritage Persian has only two entries, undoubtedly because of the repressive situation in Iran at present the present president denied that there were any homosexuals in the country in New York when he spoke at Columbia University in New York in ; however the internet as elsewhere is changing perceptions.
Polish has seen an increasing number of works since the downfall of Communism though a fierce battle continues in Poland as elsewhere against homophobia.
Nowdays most gay works come from Brazil, the world’s fourth largest country by population. Russian with 50 works has a much discussed gay history especially from and the fall of communism. Historical works by L S Klein, an anthropologist who was imprisoned for homosexuality stand out. V Kozlovskii published a gay language dictionary in With the downfall of the dictator General Franco inSpanish has had an increasing volume of works emanating from Spain: An earlier survey of gay history was the work Homosexualismo creador by A Nin Frias.
In Argentina, again, democracy brought gay culture into print. Mexico, which has long prided itself on its democratic ways, has a very active cultural group in the the Circulo Cultural Gay who have published several anthologies of gay art.
Thai with 11 gay works has a major gay scene with gay pride parades now held in Bangkok and the beach resort of Pattaya. In Turkish, which has a remarkable gay history in poetry alone, a body of gay historical works is coming into being. I Z Eyuboglu published in a major survey of gay divan poetry. There are 3 Urdu works. Urdu poetry is rich in homosexuality but in English this is discussed in. Other ways of searching. The internet should always be searched in this day and age for imformation on any topic.
In particular, the internet encyclopedia Wikipedia has millions of scholarly entries in over 40 languages and has been found to be overall extremely accurate.
For any particular language be sure to consult Wikipedia in that language; see also the specifically gay encyclopedia titled glbtq.
But there are almost no actual examples out there of jidoka. But without examples it is difficult to really understand a concept. A great. Jidoka Superfactory Manufacturing Excellence Series Lean Overview 5S & Visual Factory Cellular Manufacturing Jidoka Kaizen Poka Yoke. There are not two but three definitions of the Japanese word jidoka, which students of kaizen and the Toyota Production System are likely to.
Jidoka is the often forgotten pillar of the Toyota Production system and lean manufacturing yet it is one of the most important principles of lean that can help you achieve true excellence.
Jidoka Process Explained With Examples and Illustrations
Jidoka is about quality at source, or built in quality; no company can survive without excellent quality of product and service and jidoka is the route through which this is achieved. Initially Jidoka began its life with the invention by Sakichi Toyoda in of a simple device that could stop the shuttle on an automatic loom if the thread broke.
This meant that it prevented the machine from not only creating defects but also alerted the operator to a problem which meant that one operator could now operate several looms rather than have to stand there watching just one in case something went wrong. This principle became known as Autonomation or automation with a human touch. The sale of the patent for this invention to a UK mill provided the funding so it is said to fund the creation of the Toyoda families new business; Toyota.
But the principles that were applied to machines with Autonomation were soon applied to the whole process by Taiichi Ohno. This principle is not just confined to use jivoka machines through autonomation ; jidoka is visible in almost every aspect of lean manufacturing when you start to examine it.
It is about building Quality into a process rather than inspecting for it at the end of the process, inspection still has a place even in Toyota, and despite what people think can still be a powerful way of preventing defects reaching the customer.
Every individual in jidokw lean company such as Toyota has the authority, in fact the requirement to stop the process should they discover an abnormality, this is the way that defects and problems are highlighted and actions are taken.
So through a sometimes initially painful series of line stops we start to remove problems from our process, within a short jioka of time the number of line stops begin to reduce as problems are exampls and productivity begins to improve as root causes of problems are removed.
Examples of Jidoka |
Within companies such as Toyota line stop is a way of life, if an operator detects a jiidoka they pull a cord or push a button to stop the production line at the end of that production cycle.
This lights up an Andon board which alerts the team leader or supervisor who will immediately rush over to help solve the problem. If it can be easily corrected then they do so and restart the line, otherwise they call in whatever support is required to solve the problem.
Where we tend to fail is not having the problem highlighted but in taking action to correct the problem and solve root cause.
Examples of Jidoka
It is important that we not only give our operators and supervisory staff the authority and responsibility to stop production when they find a problem but that we also train everyone in appropriate problem solving tools to enable us to remove the root cause of the problem. We then need to ensure that any process documentation is updated to incorporate the changes and that we communicate those changes across similar processes and products to spread eaxmples learning.
The first step of Jidoka is that of detecting an abnormality, so for autonomation the machine uses simple sensors to detect a problem and then stops and highlights the problems for the operator. For line stop the operator detects an abnormality and stops the line and highlights the problem for all to see on an andon board.
Other Lean tools use various aspects of visual management to highlight abnormalities, consider 5S ; we identify the locations for tools, components and work in progress, if we see things that are not in their allocated place we have seen an abnormality and should take action. Why do we have missing tools?
Why are additional stocks being stored where they should not be?
Other tools such as Kanban will also quickly highlight problems, jido,a have these products been moved without Kanban authority? Look at TPM Total Productive Maintenancewe replace machine covers with transparent covers that let us see when we have problems more clearly, we use Kamishabi boards to schedule maintenance and other tasks, if cards are not turned we can see at exxmples glance that we have problems.
Our daily attainment figures displayed at the workplace show what the production targets are and our current attainment, if we have not met target why not? Lean relies on Jidoka principles across the various tools and gets us eexamples use visual management techniques to highlight whenever an abnormality occurs for us to take action. As team leaders, supervisors and managers we need to keep our eyes open as we walk through our workplace for these abnormalities and follow through on the Jidoka principles.
You can see what Toyota has to say about Jidoka here or you can also have a look at lean.
Jidoka; autonomation, line stop, Poka yoke and visual management are very important to ensure quality at source or built in quality and to protect our customers and businesses; used correctly Jidoka will drive improvement through all aspects of our business. If you have any questions or observations about Jidoka please feel free to leave comments below.
IEC provides procedures for calibrating multimode optical time domain reflectometers (OTDR). It covers OTDR measurement. Buy IEC CALIBRATION OF OPTICAL TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETERS (OTDR) – PART 2: OTDR FOR MULTIMODE FIBRES from SAI Global. Buy IEC CALIBRATION OF OPTICAL TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETERS (OTDR) – PART 1: OTDR FOR SINGLE MODE FIBRES from SAI Global.
Directional Results Can Be Confusing: I am testing a cable with OTDR. I have a limit 0. I use bi directional analysis. I changed the pulse width but nothing happened. You are seeing the directional differences. For a splice with 0.
iiec If you shoot in both directions and overlay, the software should recognize that there should be events in both directions, input a “0 dB” event and average accordingly. Most OTDRs also allow setting a threshold for detection of events and that must be set correctly to recognize events.
There are many times a splice is undetectable in an OTDR trace due to good splices and the simple fact that the OTDR measurement technique itself is limited. How can we differentiate a ghost from a real event? A ghost will not have any loss, it will be at equal distance from a highly reflective event look for repetitiontends to be in the middle of noise after the end of the cable.
We are starting to 61764 some OPGW cables. Are there some reusable connectors in the commerce? I assume you mean you need to test with a bare fiber on the OPGW. For testing bare fiber, use a splice, not a connector.
Have a long pigtail on the OTDR as a launch cable, long enough for the test pulse to settle, say m, then use a splice for a temporary connection.
You can fusion splice the fibers then cut the splice out or use a removable splice like the Corning Camsplice 6176 Return to the FOA home page. Needless to say, it’s extremely important to understand how to use these instruments correctly.
An insertion loss test made with a light source and power meter is a simple test that is similar in principle to how a fiber optic link works.
BS EN 61746-1:2011
A light is placed on one end of the cable and a power meter measures loss at the other ied, just like a link transmitter and receiver use the fiber for communications. It sends a pulse down the fiber and looks for a return signal from fiber backscatter and reflections from joints, creating a display called a “trace” or “signature” from the measurement of 67146 fiber. From this trace, the OTDR calculates fiber length, attenuation and joint loss.
The answer to this question has several aspects. In a long outside plant cable with many splices, the OTDR is used to ensure that the cable has not been damaged during installation and each splice is properly made. Results are archived with other documentation to be available if restoration is necessary in the future.
Later OTDR testing may be used for troubleshooting problems like finding locations of cable breaks caused by dig-ups. Premises cabling, however, has short cable runs and almost never includes splices, so the requirement of OTDR testing appears to be as an alternative to insertion loss testing with a light source and power meter, which in reality, is inappropriate.
We recommend that insertion loss testing be done even when OTDR testing is required by installation contracts. A knowledgeable contractor should be able to educate the user on proper testing requirements.
New international 6746 standards, however, accept both OTDR testing and insertion loss testing, even for short premises multimode cable plants. The differences in the measurement techniques used by OTDRs and a light source and power meter means that OTDR testing, especially on longer premises cable plants with higher loss, may not be comparable to measured insertion loss or the actual loss the communications system will experience.
In the real world, multimode cable plants in premises installations can have losses of dB or more.
IEC – European Standards
For this reason alone, we recommend that insertion loss testing be done even when OTDR testing is required by installation contracts. Most of the technical calls we get at FOA regarding problems using OTDRs on premises cabling systems are caused by users who don’t know ifc an OTDR is requiring them for testing their installation just because somebody told them to or they assume a bigger, more expensive instrument gives better data.
OTDRs lec an indirect measurement process, have poor length resolution and unique measurement errors that limit its accuracy in testing cable plants. It is not considered a replacement for insertion loss testing by knowledgeable fiber optic personnel. From a more technical standpoint, the first and most important consideration for OTDR use is iiec length of the fibers to be tested.
Some multimode OTDRs are now usable for short length multimode premises cables but only if 617746 are properly set up before use and launch and receive cables have connections with low reflectance.
If your network is short, the OTDR will not give you valid data.
Calibration of fibre optic measurement instruments
Oec you are using an OTDR without training, you are going to have big problems. OTDRs are always used with a launch cable and may use a receive cable. The launch cable, sometimes also called a “pulse suppressor,” has two major reasons for its use: The launch cable allows the OTDR trace to jec down after the test pulse is sent into the fiber so you can analyze the beginning of the cable you are testing.
The large event you see right in front of the instrument on the OTDR ied is caused by crosstalk within the instrument and reflectance from the connector on the face of the OTDR. The long recovery time from this overload pulse means the OTDR cannot make any useful measurements near the instrument itself.
The launch cable has also ic called a “pulse suppressor” because it allows time for the OTDR to settle down from this initial overload.
Also a short connection cable attached to the OTDR before the launch cable that never gets removed from the OTDR prevents excess wear on the panel connector. A receive cable may be used on the far end to allow measurements of the connector on the end of 16746 cable under test also. Most OTDRs have a display range digitized to aboutparts, so on a 20km range, the display resolution is 1m, or on a 2km range it would be 0.
The actual resolution of the OTDR is usually thought of as its ability to distinguish between two points on the cable, like intermediate patchcords or closely spaced splices. The actual resolution is determined by the width of the test pulse and the bandwidth of the OTDR receiver and is usually much longer than the display resolution.
See the demonstration below for iecc way to prove iiec to yourself.
First, what are the sources of error? The OTDR uses the speed of light in the fiber from the index of refraction to calculate the length of the fiber.
Some manufacturers of cable can provide that information for your testing. Just measure the fiber on the spool of cable with the OTDR, then look at the cable jacket for length markings to get the actual length of the cable from the printed markings at each end of the cable. Splice threshold Reflectance threshold Slope threshold slope is attenuation coefficient End threshold depends on whether you 1 use receive reference cable 611746 would be a normal connection loss or 2 the length of the cable and the noise floor of the measurement.
Best to make sure the trace is not noisy to the end and have dB from the cable backscatter level to the noise floor.
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This update improves capture and playback compatibility for DeckLink and UltraStudio models including fixing an intermittent bug where audio samples are not captured, as well as improving compatibility with cameras. It also updates Media Express to version 3. DeckLink 4K Extreme features a new high performance design for working in film quality 4K!
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DeckLink – Tech Specs | Blackmagic Design
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DeckLink 8K Pro
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The Dawoodi Bohras are a sect within the Ismā’īlī branch of Shia Islam. The largest populations of Dawoodi Bohras reside in India, Pakistan, Yemen and East . Ahlan Wa Sahlan! Welcome to ! is here to provide the children of mumineen with an opportunity to learn about Deen. Mu’ meneen Brothers and Sisters,. As Salaam Aleikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh. (May Allah’s Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon all of you). One of our.
Most sources put the worldwide population to be one million. They pray three times a day, joining both afternoon prayers Zuhr and Asr, and both evening prayers Maghreb and Isha. They fast in the month of Ramadanperform Haj and Umrah and give Zakat. In all matters of prayer, dress, physical comportment and even avoidance of financial interest, they are highly conservative.
Dawoodi Bohra – Wikipedia
At the same time, they eagerly adopt any and every aspect of modern or Western culture that is not specifically forbidden. Far from displaying the anti-Western attitudes sometimes found among other revivalist groups, Bohras proudly send their children to Britain or the United States for education, exhibit greater gender equality than most communities of the subcontinent and have become Internet pioneers uniting members of their far flung denomination into a worldwide cyber congregation.
Dawoodi Bohras are a subset Islam. They are traced as: The Ismailis split into Druze and mainstream Isma’ilis due to a succession issue and further down the line they again split into Nizari and Musta’ali branches. The Musta’ali branch to which Dawoodi Bohra trace their legacy continued until the 21st Imam Al-Tayyab, who went into occultation hiding.
His direct descendant is considered as the current Imam and remains in seclusion. Splinter groups of the Bohras have subsequently emerged over the succession dispute of the preceding Da’i.
DAWOODI BOHRA NAMAZ AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION
Twelvers believe that Musa al-Kadhim was heir to Ja’far instead; their Imams diverged at that point. During the period of Bohga, the Abbasid Caliphate replaced the Umayyads and began to aggressively oppose belief in an Imamate.
The names of the eighth, ninth, and tenth Imams are considered by some traditions to be “hidden”, known only by their nicknames due to threats from the Abbasids.
However, the Dawoodi Bohra, claim to have the true names of all the known Imams in sequence, including the “hidden” Imams, namely: At the death of Imam Amir, one branch of the Mustaali faith claimed that he had transferred the imamate to his son at-Tayyib Abi l-Qasimwho was then two years old.
Another faction claimed Amir nanaz without producing an heir, and supported Amir’s cousin al-Hafiz as both the rightful Caliph and Imam. Tayyibis which include the modern Dawoodi Bohra believe the second and current period of satr began after Imam Tayyeb went into seclusion, and Queen Arwa created the office of the Dai al-Mutlaq to administer the community in the Imam’s absence.
Bonra bin Moosa d. The 3rd Dai Sayedna Hatim d. Moulai Ahmed was also their companion. With Minister Moulai Tarmal, they had honoured the Fatimid dawat along with their fellow citizens on the call of Moulai Abdullah. The 24th Dai, Yusuf Najmuddin bin Sulayman d. However, Yusuf Najmuddin continued to live in Yemen and died there.
Why do Bohras pray 3 times? – Islamhelpline
Dai Jalal’s tenure as Dai was very short, only a few months, however, nwmaz his nass, he was Wali-ul Hind after Moulai Qasim for about 20 years under the 24th Dai Syedna Yusuf while the Dai was in Yemen. Following the death of the 26th Dai in CE, Suleman bin Hasanthe grandson of the 24th Dai, was wali in Yemen and claimed the succession, supported by a few Bohras from Yemen and Namaa.
However, most Bohras denied his claim of nassdeclaring that the supporting documentary evidence was forged. The case was put up in the royal court of Mughal emperor Akbar resulting in shahi farman royal order issued in favaour of Syedna Dawood.
A further branch broke from the Dawoodi inwith the Hebtiahs Bohra splicing in a dispute following the death namax the 39th Dai. While they accept the religious authority and status of the Dai, these reformers call bobra social reforms within the Dawoodi Bohra community.
Specifically, they object to the strict social control policies, as well as the amount of tithing requested by the clergy. He shifted the Dawat from Ahmedabad to Jamnagar.
bobra The educational institute Al-Dars-al-Saifee later renamed Al Jamea tus Saifiyah was built in that era by the 43rd Dai Syedna Moulana Abdeali Saifuddinwho was an extremely renowned scholar in borha literary field.
Walayah guardianship of the faithTaharah puritysalat prayerZakat alms-givingSawm fastingHajj pilgrimage to Meccaand Jihad struggle. The Dawoodi Bohra utilise the versions of the azaan call to prayer and shahada common to other Mustaaliwhich incorporate mention of Ali.
Dawoodi Bohras believe that the 21st Mustaali Imam, Taiyab abi al-Qasim, is obhra direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah. During testimony of 51st Dai Syedna Taher Saifuddinhe clarified about knowledge classes of ‘Zahir’, ‘Tavil’ and, ‘Hakikat’ present in community.
First two are known to many bohrs third one namely ‘Hakikat’ content some religious truths known to very few. Some of which are known to only 2 or 3 persons in community, and there is also knowledge which is available with Dai only, and he gets it from his predecessor Dai.
It should not be confused with other offices that exist in the Imamate such as Da’i-ad-Du’at and Da’i al-Balagh. Zoeb bin Moosa was the first Da’i-al-Mutlaq. Many also have links with Mohammad Rasulullah family as indicated in the family trees right.
Islam prohibits Riba Usury and interest; Dawoodi Bohras follow the principle of Qardhan hasana interest-free loans. Numerous Qardhan Hasana fund schemes have been established, many working at bohga local jamaat level and others working at a national level in various countries. The funds are generated from contributions of individual members but the bulk amount comes from the Da’i-al-Mutlaq. InMufaddal Saifuddin donated more than Rs.
The central rite of passage for Bohras is mithaq, the only namsz ritual unique to the denomination.
This ceremony, obligatory for every Bohra who wishes to be part of the community, is a covenant between the believer and God, effected through his wali. In addition to spelling out the duties a believer owes to Allah, it includes an oath of allegiance: The mithaq oath is first taken at whatever age a child is deemed to have reached maturity: During early puberty, a child will be brought by his or her parents for an interview with the local amil.
The amil asks the youth a series of questions about the Bohra faith, and only after providing adequate answers will the child be accepted for mithaq. On the eighteenth day of the Islamic month of zyl-Hajj, every Bohra congregation renews its mithaq vows together. The Dawoodi Bohra retain the Fatimid-era Tabular Islamic calendar which they believe matches perfectly with the lunar cycle, not requiring any correction.
In this calendar, the lunar year has days. Their odd-numbered months have 29 days and the even-numbered months have 30 days, except in a leap year when the 12th and final month has 30 days. The office of the Da’i al-Mutlaq, known as Dawat—e-Hadiyah, is central to secular and religious affairs among Dawoodi Bohras.
The present office is in Badri Mahal, Mumbai, which is represented by Jamaat Committees in all the cities with significant numbers of Dawoodi Bohra members. The Aamil is the president of the local Jamaat committee in his respective city. He is appointed by the Dawat—e-Hadiyah, with the permission of the Dai al Mutlaq. There are several sub committees and trusts under the Jamaat committee, looking after different aspects of Dawoodi Bohra administration.
The worldwide number of Dawoodi Bohras is estimated at just over one million. The word Bohra comes from the Gujarati word vehru “trade”in reference to their traditional profession.
The community has a rich legacy of Arabic literature while the main spoken language is Lisan al-Dawata fundamentally Gujarati dialect with considerable inclusion of vocabulary from Arabic and Urdu with some English. The Script used is Perso-Arabic. Dawoodi Bohras have a blend of ethnic cultures, including: Yemeni, Egyptian, African, Pakistani and Indian.
In addition to the local languages, the Dawoodi Bohras have their own language called Lisan al-Dawat. When in communal attire, a Dawoodi male has a form of tunic called kurtaequally lengthy overcoat dress called sayaand an izaar typically donned underneath, all of which are mostly white, along with a white and golden cap called topi. Most men have a beard. A Bohra woman wears a two piece dress called a rida.
The Dawoodi Bohra maintain a distinct form of attire; the Dawoodi Bohra men wear a white three piece outfit, plus a white and gold cap Kufi called a topiand women wear the ridaa distinctive form of the commonly known burqa which is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it sporting bright colors and decorated with patterns and lace.
The ridah can have any hohra except black, preventing confusion of Bohra women with Sunni women and thus enabling easy identification of fellow members of the community, which in turn is important for maintaining strict social control. Dawoodi Bohras have a unique system of communal eating with groups of 8 or 9 people seated around a thaal particularly large metal namazz. Each course of the meal is served for the people around the thaal to share.
All heads should be covered during the meal. Once everyone is seated, one serving member walks with water in a chelamchi lota a kind of basin and jug for everyone to wash their hands. At community feasts, they have desserts or meethas first and starters or khaaras next, followed by the main meal.
Food is the glue that namax the community, which explains why community feasts are integral to the Bohra way of life. Inthe community namazz under Mohammed Burhanuddin instituted community kitchens in Mumbai that deliver Bohra families two meals per day; the goal of this system is to free women from the task of preparing food, providing them with time to pursue education naamz economic activities. At every town and city across the world, they have namwz a Dana grain Committee, which is tasked to eliminate namza wastage.
The emphasis is on not allowing even a single grain to go to waste. As a first step, the dana committee has developed RSVP apps and other web and mobile based platforms where invitees to a communal meal inform in advance if they are attending or skipping a dinner.
At community dinners, two Dana committee members are assigned to look after 10 thals big plates. The dana committee volunteers, including youngsters and children, go to every individual and ask them to finish whatever they take on the plate creating a gradual consciousness.
If the leftovers cannot be distributed to the needy, it is fed to animals or composted. This way, nothing goes vohra. Dawoodi Bohras have their own jamaats local communities which will be focused around a masjid or a markaz community bogra where an “Amil” leader appointed by the Syedna leads namaaz and gives discourses.
The place where meals are served is called the jamaat khaana. The Jamaat khaana is usually adjoined to the masjid complex. During the 20th century, the Syednas established colleges, schools and madrasas in villages, towns and cities all around the world. A third campus was established in Nairobi, Kenya inand in a fourth campus was established in Marol MumbaiMaharashtra. The 51st Dai Syedna Taher Saifuddin introduced modern subjects including anmaz and arts to the curriculum in and renamed the academy Al Jamea tus Saifiyah.
This process of modernization continued with his son and successor Syedna Mohammad Burhanuddin who introduced ‘state-of-the-art’ facilities such as the Mahad al-Zahra Quran training Institute.
He also made it an International Baccalaureate Office. The 51st Da’i Syedna Taher Saifuddin was a prolific scholar who wrote more than 40 volumes or ‘Risalas’ and has penned more than 10, nqmaz in nohra to the Shia saints.
Currently, there are 25 branches of the school worldwide. The Dai al Mutlaq and Wali of Past have been laid to rest in rauzaswhere thousands of community members visit every year, in Yemen and India.
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89C51 or AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel’s family . Pdf of AT89C51 datasheet & pin diagram are also available at Engineers. Disclaimer: Whilst information is supplied in good faith, we are not liable for any errors or omissions. Please consult the relevant Atmel datasheet. E&OE. Key. 89C51/89C52/89C54/89C 80C51 8-bit microcontroller family. 4K/8K/16K/32K Flash. Product specification. Replaces Datasheets 89C51 of.
In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip SoC ; an SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems.
Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. In the context of the internet of thingsmicrocontrollers are an economical and popular means of data collectionsensing and actuating the physical world as edge devices.
Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at frequencies as low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption single-digit milliwatts or microwatts. They generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt ; power consumption while sleeping CPU clock and most peripherals off may be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications.
Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor DSPwith higher clock speeds and power consumption. The first microprocessor was the 4-bit Intel released inwith the Intel and other more capable microprocessors becoming available over the next several years. However, both processors required external chips to implement a working system, raising total system cost, and making it impossible to economically computerize appliances.
One book credits TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran with the successful creation of the first microcontroller in The result of their work was the TMSwhich became commercially available in Partly in response to the existence of the single-chip TMS Intel developed a computer system on a chip optimized for control applications, the Intelwith commercial parts first shipping in This chip would find its way into over one billion PC keyboards, and other numerous applications.
At that time Intel’s President, Luke J. Most microcontrollers at this time had concurrent variants. One had EPROM program memory, with a transparent quartz window in the lid of the package to allow it to be erased by exposure to ultraviolet light, often used for prototyping. The other was either a mask programmed ROM from the manufacturer for large series, or a PROM variant which was only programmable once; sometimes this was signified with the designation OTP, standing for “one-time programmable”.
The erasable versions required ceramic packages with quartz windows, making them significantly more expensive than the OTP versions, which could be made in lower-cost opaque plastic packages.
For the erasable variants, quartz was required, instead of less expensive microcontrolper, for its transparency to ultraviolet—glass is largely opaque to UV—but the main cost differentiator was the ceramic package itself. Nowadays microcontrollers are cheap and readily available for hobbyists, with large online communities around certain processors. On 21 Junethe “world’s smallest computer” was announced by the University of Michigan.
The device is a “0. Because they are too small to have conventional radio antennae, they receive and transmit data with visible light. A base station provides light for power and programming, and it receives the data.
Over two billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in and according to Semico, over four billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only four general-purpose microprocessors but around three dozen microcontrollers. A typical mid-range dtaasheet has about 30 microcontrollers. They can also be found in many electrical devices such as micrrocontroller machines, microwave ovens, and telephones.
89C51 Datasheet pdf – 8 Bit Microcontroller with 4 Kbytes Flash – Atmel
Historically, the 8-bit segment has dominated the MCU market [. The bit MCU market is expected to grow rapidly due to increasing demand for higher levels of precision in embedded-processing systems and the growth in connectivity using the Internet. Cost has plummeted over time, with the cheapest 8-bit microcontrollers being available for under 0. Inthe low-priced microcontrollers above from are all more expensive with inflation calculated between and prices for mcrocontroller specific units at: A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system.
While some embedded systems are very sophisticated, many have minimal requirements for memory and program length, with no operating system, and low software complexity.
Typical input and output devices include switches, relayssolenoidsLED ‘s, small or custom liquid-crystal displaysradio frequency devices, and sensors for data such as temperature, humidity, light level etc. Microcontrollers microconfroller provide real-time predictable, though not necessarily fast response to events in the embedded system they are controlling. When certain events occur, an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine ISR, or “interrupt handler” which will perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt, before returning to the original instruction sequence.
Possible interrupt sources are device dependent, and often include events such as an internal timer overflow, completing an analog to digital conversion, a logic level change on an input such as from a button being pressed, and data received on a communication link. Where power consumption is important as in battery devices, interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low-power sleep state where the processor is halted until required to do something by a peripheral event.
Typically micro-controller programs must fit in the available on-chip memory, since it would be costly to provide a system with external, expandable memory. Compilers and assemblers are used to convert both high-level and assembly language codes into a compact machine code for storage in the micro-controller’s memory.
Depending on the device, the program memory may be permanent, read-only memory that can only be programmed at the factory, or it may be field-alterable flash or erasable read-only memory. Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their micro-controllers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. Originally these included EPROM versions that have a “window” on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultraviolet light, ready for reprogramming after a programming “burn” and test cycle.
Other versions may be available where the Dahasheet is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory, however these are becoming rare due to the widespread availability of cheap microcontroller programmers. The use of field-programmable devices on a micro controller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but microcontrol,er yet shipped.
Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. Where hundreds of thousands of identical devices are required, using parts programmed at the time of micorcontroller can be economical. These ” mask microconhroller ” parts have the program laid down in the same way as the logic of the chip, at the same time.
A customized micro-controller incorporates a block of digital logic that can be personalized for additional processing capability, peripherals and interfaces that are adapted to the requirements of the application. GPIO pins are software configurable to either microcontrokler input or an output state. When GPIO pins are configured to mjcrocontroller input state, they are often used to read sensors or external signals.
Configured to the output state, GPIO pins can drive external devices such as LEDs or motors, often indirectly, through external power electronics.
(PDF) 89C51 Datasheet download
dayasheet Many embedded systems need to read sensors that produce analog signals. This is the purpose of the analog-to-digital converter ADC. Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data, i. So the analog datasueet digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize.
A less common feature on some microcontrollers is a digital-to-analog converter DAC that allows the processor to output analog signals or voltage levels. In addition to the converters, many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well.
One of the most common types of timers is the programmable interval timer Microcontrloler. A PIT may either count down from some value to zero, or up to the capacity of the count register, overflowing to zero.
Once it reaches zero, it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. This is useful for devices such as thermostats, which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on, the heater on, etc. A dedicated pulse-width modulation PWM block makes it possible for the CPU to control power convertersresistive loads, motorsetc.
Micro-controllers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU.
Using fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper package. Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip, but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole.
Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU and external peripherals, having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board, and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the circuit board, in addition to tending to decrease the defect rate for the finished assembly.
A micro-controller is a single integrated circuitcommonly with the following features:.
This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and circuit board space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. Furthermore, on low pin count devices in particular, each pin may interface to several internal peripherals, with the pin function selected by software.
This allows a part to be used in a wider variety of applications than if pins had dedicated functions. Micro-controllers have proved to be highly popular in microcobtroller systems since their introduction in the s. Some microcontrollers use a Harvard architecture: Where a Harvard architecture is used, instruction words for the processor may be a different bit size than the length of internal memory and registers; for example: The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult.
The microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-to-market dataeheet from their datasehet and overall lower system cost. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality. Microcontroller architectures vary widely. Other designs are purpose built for control applications. A micro-controller instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit manipulation bit-wise operations to make microvontroller programs more compact.
Microconntroller microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications. Microcontrollsr vendors often make tools freely available to make it easier to adopt their hardware. Microcontrollers with specialty hardware may require their own non-standard dialects of C, such as SDCC for thewhich prevent using standard tools such as code libraries or jicrocontroller analysis tools even for code unrelated to hardware features. Interpreters may also contain nonstandard features, such as MicroPythonalthough a fork, CircuitPythonhas looked to move hardware dependencies to libraries and have the mmicrocontroller adhere to a more CPython standard.
Interpreter firmware is also available for some microcontrollers. Typically these interpreters support interactive programming. Simulators are available for some microcontrollers. These allow a developer to analyze what the behavior of the microcontroller and their program should be if they were using the actual part. A simulator will show the internal processor state and also that of the outputs, as well as allowing input signals to be generated.
While on the one hand most simulators will be limited from being unable to simulate much other hardware in a system, they can exercise conditions that may otherwise be hard to reproduce at will in the physical implementation, and can be the quickest way to debug and analyze problems.
Buy online Atmel 89C51 Microcontroller India – Robomart
Recent microcontrollers are often integrated with on-chip debug circuitry that when accessed by an in-circuit emulator ICE via JTAGallow debugging of the firmware with a debugger.
As of [update]there are several dozen microcontroller architectures and vendors including:. Many others exist, some of which are used in very narrow range of applications or are more like applications processors than microcontrollers. The microcontroller market is extremely datasneet, with numerous vendors, technologies, and markets. Note that many vendors sell or have sold multiple architectures.
Heinrich Khunrath or Dr Henricus Khunrath as he was also called, was a Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae was first published at Hamburg in , but . The stuff crime novels are made of: Heinrich Khunrath’s Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae (Hanau, ). Wednesday February 9th, Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae (engl. Amphitheater of Eternal Wisdom) by Heinrich Khunrath, Hamburg (ISBN ).
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